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NARRATOR: They were the brutes
of Ice Age Europe.

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Although a branch
of our human family tree,

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they were seen as a dead end,
deep in our prehistoric past.

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They were called Neanderthals.

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Neanderthals have the mother
of all image problems.

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NARRATOR: They eked out
a marginal existence,

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hunting by brute force,
with only simple stone tools.

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They were considered primitive,
with no language, art

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or the higher-level thinking
of advanced species like us.

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They lacked the same
intelligence as modern humans.

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NARRATOR: They began to disappear
40,000 years ago

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as modern humans, our species,
came on the scene.

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But this primitive picture
is being replaced

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by a different image
of Neanderthals.

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It's bringing them
much closer to us,

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as genetic evidence revises
our human family tree

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and reveals their mysterious
presence right within our genes.

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We started to look at the
problem from different angles.

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They answer would come back,
"It's Neanderthal."

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That was quite shaking to me,
and I thought,

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"This must be
a statistical fluke."

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NARRATOR: Now archaeologists
are finding new evidence

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to help resolve bitter debates.

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This is the smoking gun.

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We have the case to settle
the controversy.

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NARRATOR: In toolmaking, they're seeing
signs of language.

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There is some sort of advanced
talking going on.

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NARRATOR:
A new Neanderthal mind emerges.

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We're not talking about idiots.

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NARRATOR: And if scientists are finally
finding the real legacy

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of the Neanderthals buried deep
in our history and our genes,

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what does it say
about all of us?

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"Decoding Neanderthals,"
right now on NOVA.

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NOVA 40x07
Decoding Neanderthals
Original Air Date on January 9, 2013

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== sync, corrected by elderman ==

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Major funding for NOVA
is provided by the following:

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Supporting NOVA and promoting
public understanding of science.

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And the Corporation
for Public Broadcasting,

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and by PBS viewers like you.

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[...]
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